A Hack By Any Other Name

Posted by on May 8, 2013 in Data Security, Employment and Labor

The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) criminalizes forms of “hacking” other than actually breaking into a computer system — United States v. Nosal, 2013 WL 978226 (N.D .Cal. Mar. 12, 2013)

Nosal is back.  This is the case that spawned a Ninth Circuit decision narrowing the reach of the CFAA to hacking activity.  The case returned to the trial court after the Ninth Circuit decision.  The trial court recently convicted the defendant (David Nosal) of violating the CFAA.  But before analyzing the decision, let’s take a brief look at the background.

Nosal is a former employee of Korn/Ferry, an executive search and recruiting firm.  After leaving Korn/Ferry, Nosal obtained access to Korn/Ferry’s confidential and proprietary data with help from others.  In some instances, Nosal got Korn/Ferry employees to give their passwords to outsiders to enable them to access the firm’s computer systems.  In another instance, a Korn/Ferry employee logged onto the firm’s computer system using her password and then allowed a non-employee to use the system.  Nosal used the stolen data to start his own executive search business.  Nosal and his co-conspirators were indicted for violating the CFAA by exceeding authorized access to Korn/Ferry’s computers “knowingly and with intent to defraud.”

An en banc panel of the Ninth Circuit held that the CFAA’s prohibition on accessing computers “without authorization” or “exceeding authorized access” is limited to violations of restrictions on access to information, not restrictions on its use.  The Ninth Circuit reasoned that the CFAA primarily targets hacking rather than misappropriation of information.  The Ninth Circuit returned the case to the trial court to determine if Nosal violated the CFAA under its interpretation of the statute.

Nosal tried to persuade the trial court to push the Ninth Circuit’s rationale one step further.  Nosal argued that, since the CFAA is an anti-hacking statute, it is violated only when someone circumvents technological barriers to access to a computer.  Under this narrow interpretation, not every form of unauthorized access to a computer necessarily violates the CFAA.  The trial court disagreed with Nosal’s interpretation because the Ninth Circuit did not base CFAA liability on the manner in which access is restricted.  Moreover, password protection is a form of a technological access barrier, and Nosal and his co-conspirators clearly bypassed password restrictions.

Nosal next argued that his co-conspirators did not act “without authorization” because they used a valid password issued to a Korn/Ferry employee.  The court wasn’t enamored with this argument either.  Whether an act is authorized must be viewed from the perspective of the employer who maintains the computer system.  Clearly, an employer would not authorize an employee to allow another person to use his or her password.  Nosal attempted to analogize consensual use of an employee’s computer password to consensual use of an employee’s key to gain physical access to a building, a situation that Nosal argued would not violate trespass law.  The court also rejected this argumen.

Finally, Nosal argued that the Korn/Ferry employee who engaged in “shoulder surfing” (i.e., logging into the firm’s computer system and then letting another person use the system) did not engage in unauthorized “access.”   The court found no difference between an employee who gives her password to an outsider and an employee who logs into the firm’s computer system with her password and then lets an outsider use the system.  Both situations qualify as “access” under the CFAA.

LegalTXT Lesson: The CFAA targets hacking instead of misappropriation (so the Ninth Circuit says), but hacking could take various forms.  According to the latest Nosal decision, the CFAA criminalizes at least these forms: (a) breaking into a computer system; (b) letting an outsider use your password to access a system; (c) logging into a system with your password and then letting an outsider use the system.

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Another Court Interprets the CFAA Narrowly

Posted by on Feb 7, 2013 in Data Security, Employment and Labor

A New York federal judge rules that misuse of computer information  gained through legal access does not violate the CFAAAdvanced Aerofoil Techs., AG v. Todaro, 2013 WL 410873 (S.D.N.Y. Jan. 30, 2013)

Judge Carter of the Southern District of New York joined a growing number of federal courts adopting a narrow interpretation of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) that precludes liability for misappropriation under the Act.  Several high-level personnel in the plaintiff companies (AAT) defected to a competing company, apparently taking with them AAT’s confidential and proprietary technology.  AAT sued the ex-employees for, among other things, alleged violations of the CFAA.

An obstacle that AAT faced in pressing the CFAA claim was the fact that the ex-employees had “unfettered and unlimited access” to the information they took with them.  Liability under the CFAA requires that the defendant have “access[ed] a computer without authorization.”  Courts across the country are split on whether the CFAA is violated where a person legally accesses to a computer but misuses the information obtained with such access, such as what the former AAT employers allegedly did.

After noting that the Second Circuit has not decided the issue, and surveying decisions on both sides of the issue, including those written by his colleagues in the same district, Judge Carter answered the question in the negative.  A CFAA violation occurs when one accesses a computer without permission.  Judge Carter gave three reasons for his conclusion.  First, the ordinary meaning of the word “authorization” refers to the absence of permission.  Second, the legislative history of the CFAA indicates that the Act is directed primarily at access instead of misuse.  Third, a violation of the CFAA could lead to criminal liability, the statute should be read narrowly, and ambiguities should be resolved in favor of the defendant.  Because AAT had not revoked the defendants’ unlimited access to its system when they siphoned off the confidential and proprietary information, the court dismissed the CFAA claim.

LegalTXTS Note: I’ve blogged on this issue quite a bit.  That indicates increased use of the CFAA in data misappropriation cases, or the uneasiness courts have in stretching the CFAA beyond its origin as an anti-hacking statute–or both.  Here are my previous posts on similar cases.

Court Carves Back Oracle’s Computer Fraud and Abuse Act Claim Against Gray Market Reseller

CFAA: Recent Cases

One Is Not Like the Other: Access vs. Use Restrictions Under the CFAA

Don’t Just Because You Can

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Court Carves Back Oracle’s Computer Fraud and Abuse Act Claims Against Alleged “Gray Market” Reseller

Posted by on Dec 8, 2012 in Copyright, Data Security, Litigation

California federal court finds no CFAA violation for disseminating software updates obtained from subscription to software support service, and requires fraud-based CFAA claims to be pled with particularity Oracle America, Inc. v. Service Key, LLC, 2012 WL 6019580 (N.D. Cal. Dec. 3, 2012).

Oracle, a supplier of enterprise hardware and software systems, was dealt a setback in its efforts to combat software piracy using the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA).  Oracle customers can buy an annual contract for technical support services including the ability to download software updates from Oracle’s support websites.  Access to Oracle’s support websites requires a login and password, which are provided to purchasers of the optional support service.   Under the Terms of Use for the support websites, only users who have a support agreement with Oracle are authorized to receive software updates.

DLT was a member of the Oracle Partner Network (OPN), a program for third party companies interested in reselling Oracle hardware and software.  To facilitate their role as resellers, OPN members receive login-in credentials to access Oracle’s support websites.  Oracle alleged that DLT fraudulently used its access to obtain Oracle’s proprietary software patches and updates, which DLT then provided to its own customers.  Oracle further alleged that DLT gave its access credentials to Oracle’s websites to “unwitting third parties” (apparently including the Navy and FDA) who were unaware that DLT lacked authorization to do so.  Oracle sued DLT under numerous theories, including violations of the CFAA.

Certain CFAA claims alleged that DLT “exceed[ed] authorized access” in obtaining information from Oracle’s support systems.  The court agreed with DLT that dismissal of such claims was required under United States v. Nosal, 676 F.3d 854 (9th Cir. 2012) (en banc).  In Nosal, an en banc panel of the Ninth Circuit ruled that misuse or misappropriation of information to which one has authorized access does not violate CFAA provisions based on access to a computer “without authorization or exceeding authorized access.”  Oracle’s complaint alleged that DLT used its access credentials for an unauthorized purpose (although Oracle apparently tried to distinguish Nosal by re-characterizing the complaint in subsequent briefing as alleging that DLT accessed Oracle’s websites without authorization).  That’s precisely the kind of conduct that Nosal said was not actionable under the CFAA, the court ruled.  However, DLT could still be liable under the CFAA for trafficking passwords to Oracle’s  support sites because such a claim is not based upon unauthorized access to a protected computer.

Oracle also ran into trouble with the requirement in Rule 9(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure that claims alleging fraud or mistake to be pled with particularity.  One of Oracle’s CFAA claims alleged that DLT “knowingly and with intent to defraud . . . exceed[ed] authorized access, and by means of such conduct further[ed] the intended fraud . . . .”  18 U.S.C. § 1030(a)(4).   The court concluded that the claim was “grounded” or “sounded” in fraud and thus subject to Rule 9(b).  Oracle did not adequately detail its fraud to meet the Rule 9(b) pleading requirement.

The one bright spot for Oracle in the decision was the court’s rebuff of DLT’s argument that Oracle did not properly allege damages.  Oracle alleged that it incurred costs as a result of investigating and conducting a damage assessment in response to DLT’s actions, and the court found that enough to satisfy the damage requirement.  The court also rejected a similar argument that Oracle did not sustain damages in excess of $5,000.  That argument referred to the fraud-based CFAA violation, an element of which is that the fraud resulted in the defendant obtaining “anything of value, unless the object of the fraud and the thing obtained consists only of the use of the computer and the value of such use is not more than $5,000 in any 1-year period[.]”  18 U.S.C. § 1030(a)(4) (emphasis added).  The $5,000 threshold is not meant to be a measure of damages, the court held.  Rather, the threshold refers to the value of the computer use relevant in determining whether a CFAA violation exists.  In any event, the court said, Oracle did allege that DLT obtained something of value, i.e., its software.

LegalTXTS Lesson:  If you’re in the Ninth Circuit, recovery under the CFAA for illicit use or dissemination of proprietary computer information is a challenge.  Liability for hacking into a computer system is well-established, see Mintz v. Mark Bartelstein & Associates, Inc., 2012 WL 5391779 (C.D. Cal. Nov. 1, 2012), and so is giving away passwords to protected sites as the Oracle decision teaches.  Asking permission to access your work computer “one last time” to delete personal files before switching jobs and then downloading a bunch of proprietary data also will get you in trouble (see Weingand v. Harland Financial Solutions, 2012 WL 2327660 (N.D. Cal. June 19, 2012), and my post on it here).

When it comes to misuse or misappropriation of information that was obtained with authorized access, however, Nosal makes it pretty clear that’s not a violation of the CFAA.  The Oracle decision follows that rule.  Other circuits, like the Third Circuit, go the opposite direction—hence decisions like Synthes, Inc v. Emerge Medical, Inc., 2012 WL 4205476 (E.D. Pa. Sept. 19, 2012), which held that it is a violation of the CFAA to induce employees of a competing company who have authorized access to the company’s computer system to download proprietary information and give it to you (see my post on it here).

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CFAA: Recent Cases

Posted by on Nov 19, 2012 in Data Security, Employment and Labor, Financial Services

A round-up of recent developments in CFAA litigation is in order.  In the last three months, a series of cases have provided answers to important questions about the requirements for bringing a CFAA claim under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA).  The recent cases address three general questions:

1. What kinds of activity are considered “unauthorized access” or “access exceeding authorization”?

2. What computers are subject to the protections of the CFAA?

3. What “losses” count toward the standing requirement to bring a civil claim under the CFAA?

What kinds of activity are considered “unauthorized access” or “access exceeding authorization”?

The CFAA prohibits various activities involving the access of a computer “without authorization” or “exceeding authorized access.”  Whether the defendant’s actions constitute wrongful access is frequently litigated in CFAA cases.  The recent cases are no exception.  The cases considered three different factual situations and found that two of them satisfied the wrongful access requirements.

Downloading Information From a Publicly Accessible Website

Downloading information from a website that any member of the public could access via a hyperlink posted on another site does not constitute access “without authorization,” according to  CollegeSource, Inc. v. AcademyOne, 2012 WL 5269213 (E.D. Pa. Oct. 25, 2012).  The case involved two competing business that offered online access to college catalogs.  One of the plaintiff’s (CollegeSource) services was CataLink, which provides subscribing schools with a link to CollegSource’s digital archive of the school’s course catalogs.  The link could be inserted into the school’s homepage.  If a person browsing on the school’s homepage clicked on the link, he or she would be sent to CollegeSource’s website without being told that they were leaving the school’s web domain.  Unlike CollegeSource’s other offerings, CataLink is not a subscription-based service.

The defendant (AcademyOne) maintained an online course description database.  To populate its database, AcademyOne hired a company to collect college catalogs available on the Internet.  AcademyOne’s contractor obtained over 700 catalogs through CataLink.

The court was not persuaded by CollegeSource’s argument that AcademyOne accessed the CataLink service “without authorization” given that CataLink is available to anyone with an Internet connection.  The court also did not accept CollegeSource’s argument that AcademyOne exceeded its authorization to use CataLink because it violated the terms of use governing the CollegeSource website.  The terms of use were not binding on AcademyOne because the link to CataLink material appeared on the webpage of a school, and clicking on the link did not trigger a notice that the user was leaving the school website and being forwarded to the CataLink page.

Enlisting the Aid of a Person With Authorized Access to Obtain Restricted Information

Asking others to get you information that you’re not entitled to have will get you in trouble.  In Synthes, Inc v. Emerge Medical, Inc., 2012 WL 4205476 (E.D. Pa. Sept. 19, 2012), former employees of a medical devices company who formed a competing business obtained the company’s proprietary information from current employees of the company.  Inducing those with authorization to access a computer to retrieve and give information to a person who is not entitled to access such information constitutes access of a computer “without authorization,” the court held.

Hacking Into an Employees’ Email Account

This seems fairly obvious, but hacking into an employee’s email account could constitute a violation of the CFAA.  The litigants in Mintz v. Mark Bartelstein & Associates, Inc., 2012 WL 5391779 (C.D. Cal. Nov. 1, 2012), didn’t even bother to fight over whether the defendant-employer violated the CFAA by ordering an employee to hack into the plaintiff’s Gmail account.  The wrongfulness of the act was undisputed.  The parties instead dueled over whether the plaintiff sustained “loss” as a result of the unauthorized access (see below).

What constitutes a “protected computer”?

Various prohibitions in the CFAA are tied to the accessing of a “protected computer,” which has two definitions.  A “protected computer” could be a computer used exclusively by a financial institution or the U.S. government, or if not exclusively, then for a use affected by the conduct that violated the CFAA.  A “protected computer” could also be a computer “which is used in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce or communication ….”  18 U.S.C. § 1030.

In Freedom Banc Mortgage Services, Inc. v. O’Harra, 2012 WL 3862209 (S.D. Ohio Sept. 5, 2012), the court held that a computer with a connection to the Internet is enough to satisfy the definition of a “protected computer” because of its use in or effect on interstate commerce.  If a computer is connected to the Internet (and an allegation that the computer is used for email communications sufficiently establishes that fact), no additional link to interstate commerce needs to be shown.

What “losses” count toward meeting the standing requirement?

A claimant must have suffered “damage or loss by reason of a violation of” the CFAA to maintain a civil action under the CFAA.  18 U.S.C. § 1030(g).  One way to meet this standing requirement is to establish loss during any 1-year period aggregating at least $5,000.  § 1030(c)(4)(A)(i)(I). What costs qualify toward the threshold amount, and how they can be aggregated to meet the threshold, is a common issue.

The court in CollegeSource held that the costs to conduct an internal investigation, hire a computer expert, and implement subsequent security measures in response to an incident of unauthorized access count as qualifying “losses.”  To that list, Synthes added expenses to conduct damage assessments; identify and trace the information that has been misappropriated; and restore data, programs, systems, and information to the condition they were in before the defendant engaged in CFAA violation.  Legal expenses, however, are not “losses” unless necessary to remedy the harm caused by the violation.  So in Mintz, attorneys’ fees incurred by the plaintiff to issue subpoenas to confirm the identity of the person who hacked into his email account were not “losses” because the plaintiff already knew who the hacker was before the subpoenas issued.  The Mintz court contrasted another case (SuccessFactors, Inc. v. Softscape, Inc., 544 F. Supp. 2d 975 (N.D. Cal. 2008)) in which the victim of a hacked email account had to hire attorneys to identify the recipients of the victim’s confidential information that the hacker obtained and distributed.  The attorneys’ fees in that case were “losses” because the plaintiff needed to know whom it had to contact to mitigate the damage caused by the hacker.

In regards to whether losses can be aggregated, the Freedom Banc court held that qualifying “losses” need not flow from a single wrongful act.  Losses stemming from multiple CFAA violations could be added together to meet the threshold $5,000 amount.

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Facebook Seeks Dismissal of Internet Tracking Lawsuit Alleging Privacy Violations

Posted by on Oct 8, 2012 in Privacy, Social Media

Facebook is being sued in a $15 billion lawsuit alleging that the popular social media company secretly tracked the Internet activity of its users after they log off (the First Amended Complaint is available here).  The case is a consolidation of nearly two dozen lawsuits filed in ten states, including one here in Hawaii (Quinn v. Facebook, Inc., 1:11-cv-00623).  The lawsuit alleges violations of the U.S. Wiretap Act, the Stored Communications Act, and Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.

In July, Facebook filed a motion to dismiss the lawsuit on the ground that the plaintiffs failed to allege sufficient injury.  At the hearing on the motion on October 5, Facebook’s attorneys argued that the plaintiffs haven’t identified the websites they visited, the kind of information that Facebook collected, or whether Facebook disclosed any information to anyone else.  The lawyer representing the subscribers countered that generalized allegations of harm are sufficient at this stage of the case, and that Facebook’s alleged practice of tracking their users’ Internet activity was not disclosed as part of Facebook’s privacy policy.   The court’s ruling on the motion to dismiss is pending.

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